Vol 15, No 4 (2012)

Russian National Consensus Statement on gestational diabetes: diagnostics, treatment and postnatal care
Dedov I.I., Krasnopol'skiy V.I., Sukhikh G.T.
Abstract
Current document presents the expert consensus of Russian Association of Endocrinologists and Russian Society of Obstetrician- Gynecologists on diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes and other glycemic disorders of pregnancy. The consensus is based on analysis of HAPO (Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Study) - a major multinational study, that included more than 23000 patients. Project of current consensus was repeatedly discussed during meetings of the research group and publicly addressed at 6th Pan-Russian Congress of Endocrinology with international participation ?Modern Endocrine Technologies?, as well as Pan-Russian Educational Interscience Conference ?Complicated Pregnancy and Preterm Birth?.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):4-10
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Diabetes mellitus and other pathology in patients with INS and INSR mutations
Pankov Y.A.
Abstract
Over 20 missense mutations and Y108X nonsense mutation in INS are dominant and induce synthesis of chimeric proteins that may interfere with folding and processing of all insulin molecules. In heterozygous state they cause insulin deficiency and PND. Over 10 recessive mutations and the p.Q62X nonsense mutation of INS do not induce synthesis of anomalous protein, being associated with PND only in homozygous state. Most of significant mutations that induce insulin resistance, lipodystrophy, and other pathology were found in INSR gene. Lipodistrophy suggests an important role of insulin in stimulating fat accumulation and controlling lipid consumption in energy metabolosm.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):11-16
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Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in diabetes mellitus: novel pathogenetic concepts for treatment of vascular complications
Konenkov V.I., Klimontov V.V.
Abstract
Hyperglycemia along with other metabolic disorders may disrupt the balance of pro- and antiangiogenic regulators, thus leading to a maladaptive formation of new blood vessels in the state of diabetes mellitus (DM). In their turn, aberrant angiogenesis and vasculogenesis are important mechanisms of vascular complications in DM. Activation of retinal angiogenesis is a cornerstone of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, though in diabetic nephropathy excessive angiogenesis is only seen at early stages. Quite on the contrary, macrovascular complications are characterized by certain inhibition of both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Novel therapeutic approaches, based on correction of angiogenesis, have emerged recently. Clinical trials have shown efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors (the ?anti-VEGF? agents) for management of diabetic macular edema and proliferative retinopathy. Experimental evidence also indicates that this treatment may hinder the progress of diabetic nephropathy. In addition, stimulation of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis with stem cells or growth factors promise an option for treatment of large vessels in DM.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):17-27
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Prospects of antigen-specific therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus
Nikonova T.V., Alekseeva Y.V.
Abstract
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is commonly recognized as an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive destruction of pancreatic ?-beta-cells. Progress in diagnostics at preclinical stage is accompanied with active development of preventive measures. So far, there are no specific therapeutic agents approved for clinical practice. However, ongoing large-scale studies have outlined some promising solutions, antigen-specific immunotherapy being one of them.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):28-32
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Neuropsychological dynamics in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergone coronary artery bypass grafting
Trubnikova O.A., Mamontova A.S., Syrova I.D., Maleva O.V., Barbarash O.L.
Abstract

AIM: The study was aimed at evaluation of hospital neuropsychological dynamics in ischemic heart disease patients with comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergone on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 14 from a total of 37 examined patients had T2DM. Diabetic patients were found to have lower attention parameters prior to the intervention in comparison to non-diabetic controls. At days 7-10 after the surgery all patients demonstrated deterioration of cognitive functions.

RESULTS: We observed deeper deterioration in diabetic patients, regarding attention, memory, sensorimotor speed and quantity of erroneous test responses, as measured against individuals with normal glucose tolerance.

CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic patients undergone coronary artery bypass surgery show lower cognitive characteristics when compared to controls without T2DM, suggesting this cohort to be a high-risk group for further cognitive decline.

Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):33-38
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Prognostic significance of proinflammatory factors in patients with progressive angina pectoris and type 2 diabetes mellitus
Barbarash O.L., Sumin A.N., Avramenko O.E., Osokina A.V., Veremeev A.V.
Abstract
Aims.
Our study was aimed to assess the influence of non-specific inflammation and endothelial dysfunction on developmentof cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and progressive angina pectoris.
Materials and methods.
140 patients (63 of them were also diabetic) received follow-up for cardiovascular events during12 months after an episode of unstable angina pectoris. Upon hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome analyses wereperformed to assess the degree of systemic inflammation evaluating plasma concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatorymarkers (CRP, fibrinogen, IL-6, -8, -10, TNF-?), as well as blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin HbA1c.
Results.
TNF-? and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with unfavorable prognosis (p<0.05). On the contrary,an anti-inflammatory IL-10 was found to be more active in patients with better cardiovascular prognosis (p<0.05). Diabeticindividuals were characterized with statistically significant elevation of CRP and fibrinogen, as compared to non-diabeticcontrols. We show a correlation of glycemic parameters, evaluated at 10th day of inpatient care, with IL-6 and CRP.We also established a strong correlation between markers of dyslipidemia and inflammation, evaluated at 10th day ofhospitalization for cardiovascular event in patients with unfavorable prognosis, which suggests common nature of differentmechanisms of atherosclerosis progression.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):39-45
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Insulin pump therapy in children with diabetes mellitus: practice of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Taranushenko T.E., Panfilova V.N., Terent'eva O.A., Koreshkova N.D., Petrova M.N.
Abstract
Aim.
To summarize practical experience of insulin pump therapy (IPT) in child population of Krasnoyarsk and to assess its efficacy for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in paediatrics.
Materials and Methods.
We performed a comparative analysis of clinical and laboratory data from 48 children with T1DM prior to and after 6-12 months of IPT.
Results.
IPT yielded fourfold decrease in complaints of hyperglycemia and labile glycemia without concurrent increase in reports of severe hypoglycemia.  We observed a trend for lowering of mean HbA1c levels, where 65% of patients showed positive dynamics in comparison with the period of multiple daily injection regimen. Interestingly, after 6-12 months of IPT, insulin requirement dropped in most patients.
Conclusion.
Our data support clinical efficiency and safety of IPT, as well as superiority of this treatment over multiple daily injection regimen. We conclude that IPT is a treatment of choice for children with T1DM.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):46-60
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Attitudes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2
Motovilin O.G., Lunyakina O.V., Surkova E.V., Shishkova Y.A., Mel'nikova O.G., Mayorov A.Y.
Abstract
Aims.
To compare disease attitudes in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) and to evaluate relationship between attitudes and psychological welfare of these groups.
Materials and Methods.
We examined 140 patients with T1DM and 70 patients with T2DM on insulin therapy (mean age 22.6?3.2 and 60.1?7.8 years; male/female ratio 47/93 and 15/55; duration of diabetes 12.1?5.7 and 11.4?6.5 years, HbA1c 9.3?2.2 и 9.0?1.4%, respectively). Psychological parameters were assessed by following methods: Bekhterev Disease Attitude Typing (DAT), Colour Attitude Test (CAT), SF-36 (36-Item Short Form Health Survey), Spielberger Anxiety Inventory (SAI), CES-D Depression Scale, Dembo-Rubinstein (DR) technique for self-esteem assessment.
Results.
DAT showed increased sensitive attitude to their disease in patients with T1 and T2DM, being significantly higher in T2DM. According to CAT, T2DM patients perceive DM as a disease, associated with severe manifestations and complications, while T1DM patients tend to incorporate the notion of diabetes with lifestyle. Cluster analysis showed negative disease attitude to be associated independently of diabetes type with decrease in quality of life and emotional deterioration (higher anxiety and depression score, as measured by SF-36, SAI and CES-D).
Conclusion.
Disease attitude typing and correction is important in management of DM. Emotional acceptance allows improvement in quality of life and promotes psychological welfare. Also, despite the absence of direct relationship between HbA1c and disease attitudes (which, is plausibly non-linear), emotional acceptance may favour glycemic compensation due to increase in compliance.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):51-58
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Anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and cerebrovascular disease
Dubinina I.I., Zhadnov V.A., Yankina S.V., Solov'eva A.V.
Abstract
Aims.
Current study was aimed to identify symptoms and risk factors for depression and anxiety and to estimate quality of life (QoL) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD).
Materials and methods.
We examined 73 patients with T2DM. 1st group included 49 patients with T2DM and CVD, 2nd group - 24 patients with T2DM and no cardiovascular pathology. The groups were not significantly different in terms of age, BMI, level of HbAlc, fasting and postprandial glycemia. All patients received antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive therapy. Anxiety and depression were diagnosed with Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Scale (SSTAS). SF-36 questionnaire was used for estimation of QoL.
Results.
2nd group showed symptoms of anxiety and depressive disorders in 100% and 75% of cases, respectively. 1st group showed significantly more prominent anxiety and depression symptoms. Risk factors for anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with T2DM and CVD were found to be senior age, obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia.
Conclusion.
Cardiovascular comorbidity in T2DM significantly decreases QoL, especially in aspects of physical functioning and vitality. Timely diagnostics of anxiety and depression in patients with T2DM and CVD requires development of screening and rehabilitation programs.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):59-62
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Glycated hemoglobin test: diagnostic difficulties in gestational diabetes
Saprina T.V., Timokhina E.S., Vorozhtsova I.N.
Abstract
Aims.
To determine sensitivity and specificity of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test with direct immunoturbidimetry as a method to diagnose gestational diabetes (GD).
Materials and Methods.
74 pregnant females were recruited during initial screening. Glycemic disorders were diagnosed with two methods: oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g of glucose and glycated hemoglobin test.
Results.
HbA1c test with direct immunoturbidimetry is a highly sensitive method for diagnosis of glycemic disorders of pregnancy, provided that cut-off level is lowered to 5.5%.
Conclusion.
Mild anemia was not found to have a significant impact on diagnostic value of HbA1c test.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):63-68
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Kidneys cytomembranes stability in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and pregnancy outcomes depending on the method of insulin delivery
Alimetova Z.R., Valeeva F.V.
Abstract
Objective.
To evaluate of kidney cytomembranes stability during pregnancy and its outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus type on type 1 with different stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN) according to the route of insulin administration.
Materials and Methods.
We study 100 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes with the introduction of insulin in the mode of multiple subcutaneous injections (MSII) and with portable dispenser with a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). DN stage determined by the level of albumin in the daily urine. Cytomembranes stability assessment conducted on daily excretion of ethanolamine and phospholipids with urine in each trimester. Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 52 patients with type 1 diabetes. In the group of pregnant women with delivery at term 38-40 weeks we also analyzed the status of newborns.
Results.
Indicators of cytomembranes stability of kidneys in pregnant women on CSII consistent with those in healthy pregnant women (p>0.05) the whole pregnancy, regardless of the level of daily urinary albumin excretion. There were no differences in cytomembrana stability of kidneys between the group of patients on MSII with normal albumin excretion (NAU) and the control group regardless to the gestational age (p>0.05). With the introduction of insulin in the mode of MSII on the stage of microalbuminuria (MAU) in the 3rd trimester we found the increase of ethanolamine excretion as compared to control groupy (U=8,00, p=0.012) and the group on CSII with a similar stage of nephropathy (U=2.00, p=0.033). In patients with proteinuria (PU) in the group on the MSII in the third trimester phospholipids excretion is increased with a daily urine (U=27,5, p=0.03 and U=22,00, p=0.07 for patients MSII and CSII, respectively). The use of an insulin pump allowed to prolong gestational period, even in severe proteinuric stage of nephropathy. Manifestations of diabetic fetopathy as macrosomia, hypoglycemia in the fetus at birth time mothers using CSII mode were less common than with MSII (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively). In the CSII group no resuscitation was needed, as opposed to 20% of children whose mothers used the MSII.
Conclusion.
The administration of insulin using portable dispenser the of mode CSII during pregnancy in patients with type 1 diabetes, even at the initial stage of the DN the cytomembranes stability is saved, pregnancy outcomes are improved.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):69-73
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Compromised calcium and phosphorus metabolism in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease
Biragova M.S., Gracheva S.A., Martynov S.A.
Abstract
Disturbance of bone and mineral metabolism (BMM) is one of manifestations of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its significance goes beyond bone disorders per se. Current discourse is as broad as to include vascular calcification, anemia and arterial hypertension, - conditions increasing mortality in patients with CKD. In this regard the active search for and development of novel approach to correction of BMM is under way. Apart from capacity to normalize calcium and phosphorus metabolism, parathyroid hormone secretion and to reduce morphologic alterations of bone tissue, modern therapeutic agents feature cardio- and renoprotective capabilities, which make them a treatment of choice for compromised BMM in CKD.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):74-80
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Diabetes, obesity and cancer: risk and anti-risk factors
Bershteyn L.M.
Abstract
Observable diabetes and obesity epidemics may result in alteration of cancer morbidity and mortality. This increasingly recognized problem is reviewed here from the perspective of interplay between factors that differently modify association of diabetes mellitus with malignant neoplasms. Heterogeneity and familial aspects of diabetes and obesity, genomic traits, anti-diabetic medications and weight-reducing treatment are important examples of such factors. Addressing them might promote development of efficient preventive measures.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):81-88
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Individual stepwise intensification of insulin analogue therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Ametov A.S., Chernikova N.A.
Abstract
Article reviews basic steps and regimens of insulin analogue therapy intensification in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intensification of insulin therapy is commonly implemented by supplementation of basal insulin with prandial before breakfast, lunch and dinner. Updated EASD/ADA guidelines (August 2012) recommend individual stepwise intensification of T2DM insulin therapy. Application of insulin analogues simplifies diabetes training and patient self-monitoring.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):89-94
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Diabetes mellitus type 2: a new indication for hypercortisolism screening?
Volkova N.I., Antonenko M.I., Ganenko L.A.
Abstract

Current review discusses novel data concerning prevalence of Cushing syndrome without characteristic clinical signs among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also provide detailed analysis of difficulties in diagnostics and management of this condition

Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):95-102
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Targeting risk factors: a feasible way for prevention of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Kononenko I.V., Smirnova O.M.
Abstract
The article addresses challenges in the prevention of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and discusses necessity of multifactorial approach to management of these conditions. We present results of a large-scale ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation) trial that elucidates the combined influence of antihypertensive and of intensive glucose-lowering therapy on the risk of development of micro- and macrovascular complications of T2DM
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):103-108
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New prospects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus
Shamkhalova M.S., Trubitsyna N.P., Shestakova M.V.
Abstract
Cardiovascular complications, a major cause for disability and morbidity in diabetes mellitus (DM), constitute the greatest threat of the diabetes epidemic. Glycemic stability within the therapeutic targets is a prerequisite to prevention of micro- and macrovascular complications of DM. Traditional therapies are aimed at cardinal defects determining development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Unfortunately even in combination they fail to deliver long-term glycemic control without stimulation of weight gain and increase in hypoglycemic risks with negative cardial, renal and hepatic impact. Preservation of beta-cell secretion capacity is also hardly attainable. Incretin-based therapy is a novel, actively developed approach that influences gut hormone physiology for better glycemic control. So far research efforts have yielded two classes of drugs: GLP-1 mimetics and DPP-4 inhibitors. Both are regarded nowadays for a number of important benefits, including beta-cell function improvement, adjusted to human physiology (i.e. stimulation of insulin secretion ?as needed? by the body, - hence low hypoglycemic risk). They also feature positive cardiovascular and body weight effects, thereby taking an important position in complex DM treatment.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):109-114
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Efficacy and safety of treatment with human insulin analogues in daily management of insulin naive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: results of multicenter 52-week observational study A1chive
Shestakova M.V.
Abstract
Modern insulin analogues allow safe improvement of glycemic control (not accompanied with increase in body mass or rate of severe hypoglycemic events) and its efficient maintenance during long period of time. In this paper we present results of multicenter 52-week prospective observational study A1chive (Russian cohort, n=9342), designed to assess safety and efficacy of treatment with human insulin analogues (Levemir?, NovoMix? 30 and NovoRapid? (Novo Nordisk) in daily management of insulin naive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prescription of human insulin analogues resulted in clinically and statistically significant improvement of glycemic control irrespective of initial insulin regimen. Therapy by various regimens (Levemir?, NovoMix? 30 or Levemir? + NovoRapid?) under conditions of daily clinical practice leads to marked improvement in glycemic control as measured by HbA1c (-2.9% in 12 month) with no evidence for negative influence on tolerability and short-term safety of the treatment. Furthermore, decrease in HbA1c levels was associated with pronounced and stable decrease in fasting and postprandial glucose levels (-5.0 mmol/L and -5.7 mmol/L, respectively). By the end of the follow-up all regimen groups reported improvement of QoL by treatment satisfaction criterion.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):115-121
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Modern aspects of diabetes care (following 48th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Studyof Diabetes), October 1th-5th, 2012, Berlin, Germany
Vikulova O.K., Bolotskaya L.L., Filippov Y.I.
Abstract
В Берлине 1?5 октября 2012 года состоялся 48-й ежегодный конгресс Европейской ассоциации по изучению сахарного диабета (EASD, European Аssociation for the Study of Diabetes). В этом году в научную программу конгресса было отобрано 1270 докладов из 2307 принятых тезисов. Программа была построена по традиционному принципу параллельных тематических сессий и пленарных лекций, отражающих ключевые проблемы диагностики и лечения сахарного диабета (СД) и его осложнений.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):122-125
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Early insulin therapy Coordination Council
Shestakova M.V.
Abstract
Coordination Council has denoted the importance of adherence to Russian and international guidelines and prominent role of insulin therapy in management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin therapy in T2DM preserves endogenous insulin secretion, prevents or decelerates development of microvascular complications and is known to be the most effective glucose-lowering treatment.
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):128-131
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In memoriam: Viktor V. Trusov (20.04.1936-29.06.2012)
 
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):136-137
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K svedeniyu avtorov
 
Diabetes mellitus. 2012;15(4):138-139
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